Population structure of green tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus (De Haan) in Bushehr waters,
Niamaimandi N. 1*, Arshad A. 2, Siti Khalijah Daud2, Ross Cheroos Saed2, Kiabi B.3
Received: January 2008 Accepted: August 2009
Keyword : population genetics, Penaeus semisulcatus, Bushehr waters, Persian Gulf
Information on the population genetics of shrimp species in the Persian Gulf is scarce. There are few electrophoretic based study therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate genetic variation among population of the green tiger prawn, P. semisulcatus, in Bushehr waters, Persian Gulf (Rezvani et al., 2001 and Rezvani, 2002) . This is the first study on this species by RAPDs in this area. The input of research in the field of genetics has resulted in new technological advances that have improved the economic gains of shrimp production.
A total of 50 P. semisulcatus were collected by R/V Lavar II from two major shrimp localities, Halaileh and Daylam (Fig. 1), in August and September 2004. Genomic DNA was extracted from muscles using the modified mini preparation method (Lie et al., 1999). A set of 9 primers (Diotech MWG) were used to detect polymorphism among populations (Table 1). The software package RAPDistance (Armstrong et al., 1994) version 1.04 was used to analyse the data.
Figure 1: Sampling areas for P. semisulcatus in Bushehr coastal
waters, Persian Gulf (2004)
1- Iran Shrimp Research Center, P.O.Box: 1374, Bushehr Iran
2- Faculty of science, Universiti Putra Malaysia
3- Faculty of science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
*Correspomding author's email: firstname.lastname@example.org
RAPDs analysis using the 9 primers which were polymorphic to some degree (Table 2).
An example of RAPDs gel obtained during the study is shown in Figure 2. Of the 9 primers examined, the percentage of polymorphism was 14.8% and most of the primers were monomorphic (85.2%).
Table 1: Sequence and operon codes of the OPA primers used for P. semisulcatus in the Bushehr waters, Persian Gulf (2004-2005)
Primer codes Sequences (5 to 3)
OPA-01 CGTCTCCTAG OPA-04 CGGAGAGCGA
Table 2: Number of amplicons and the number of polymorphic bands produced
by each RAPD primer for populations of P. semisulcatus in the
Bushehr waters, Persian Gulf (2004-2005)
Figure 2: PCR generated amplicones by primers OPA-04 (A) and OPA-09 (B)
for P. semisulcatus population in Bushehr waters, Persian Gulf (2004).
Column M is the marker. In OPA-04 lanes 1-6 Daylam and lanes 7-10
Helaileh areas and in OPA-09, lanes 1-5 Daylam and lanes 6-11 Helaileh
aeas. OPA-09 showed one polymorphisms arrow.
In the present study, the statistical analysis, indicating that P. semisulcatus populations around Bushehr area not well structured and also the small percentage of polymorphism indicated a very week genetic integrity among populations. The previous PCR-RFLP analysis (Rezvani et al., 2001 Rezvani, 2002) also failed to detect any significant difference among populations of P. semisulcatus in this region. Strong genetic differentiation in Indian Ocean populations from those found in the Pacific and South-east Asia have been reported for several marine fishes and invertebrates (Benzie, 1999), including P. monodon (Klinbunga et al., 1998 Duda and Palumbi, 1999 Benzie, 2000). In these studies although some species appeared to show no variation over large geographical distances (thousands of kilometeres), but some showed differentiation over much smaller distances in parts of their range (hundreds kilometers). In the Iranian waters (Persian Gulf), a program has recently been made since 2003 for releasing of green tiger prawn to the Bushehr waters. These prawns are generally reared from a limited number of parents and this program may effect on the genetic structure of this species in the Bushehr waters in the future.
further samples will need to be obtained from populations between Iranian waters and Arabian side in the Persian Gulf to determine whether there are any differentiations in different region and these differentiations have a biogeographically component and in addition to that accounted for by isolation by distance. The present study recommends that the population management plan of the wild P. semisulcatus, if possible be executed at every local area in the Persian Gulf.
Armstrong, J.S., Gibbs, A.J. Peakall, R. and Weiller, G., 1994 . The RAPDistance pakage.Distributed by authers. http://life.anu.edu.au/molecular/software/rapd.html
Benzie, J.A.H., 2000 . Population genetic structure of penaeid prawns. Aquacultur Research 31: 95-119.
Benzie, J.A.H., 1999 . Genetic structure of coral reef organisms – ghosts of dispersal past . Am. Zoo. 39: 131-195.
Duda, Jr. T.F. and Palumbi, S.R., 1999 . Population structure of black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, among western Indian Ocean and western Pacific population. Marine Biology 134: 705-710.
Klinbunga, S. Penman, D.J. McAndrew, B.J., Tassanakajon, A. and Jarayabhand, P., 1998. Genetic variation, population differentiation , and gene flow of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) inferred from mtDNA-RFLP data. In: Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. Bangkok . 57-59.
Lie, Z.J. Argue, P.L. and Aunham, R., 1999 . Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, usefulness for gene mapping and analysis of genetic variation of
catfish. Aquaculture 174: 59-68.
Rezvani, G.S., 2002. Introduction of
genetic indicators for identification
of three commercial shrimps from Persian Gulf and Oman Sea by using PCR-RFLP analysis. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. Vol. 10, No. 4 (In Persian). 11-20.
Rezvani, G.S. Babaei, S A. and Pourkazemi, M. 2001. Molecular population study on Penaeus semisulcatus from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea using cytochorom oxidase subunit I (Co1) gene by RFLP method. Iranian Jjournal of Fisheries Sciences 10( 2 ):15-30 (In Persian).